Safety reports and risk studies
a. Natural and technological risk assessment studies
Natural and technological risks affect economic and social growth of exposed regions. They have destructive effects on the environment, but also on the economy and safety of life.
Generally speaking, natural and technological disasters are impossible to predict, and in the last few years the frequency of their manifestation has increased significantly. Even though in present times, the majority of logistical resources focus on the response and rebuilt actions following a major disaster, for most communities, prevention and reduction of consequences are much more important.
The complexity of industrial sites, the variety of used substances and technological processes determines the necessity of using even more methods and techniques of identification and evaluation of hazards and risks.
Thus, the risk assessment is a complex study, that relies on a series of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods, which estimate the probability and severity of technological accidents and determine the need for accident prevention measures.
Studies assessing the natural and technological risks to which the population is exposed are becoming a necessity. These studies serve to identify those critical points and enable effective solutions to be found to reduce risks where necessary.
b. Safety reports
The safety report is developed by natural persons or juridical persons authorised by the Law nr 59 from 11 April 2016 regarding the control over the dangers of major accidents in which dangerous substances are involved, the site operator is obliged to draw up a safety report with the purpose:
1) to demonstrate that a MAPP has been drafted and a safety management system has been put into effect for its implementation;
2) to demonstrate that major-accident hazards and possible major-accident scenarios have been identified and that the necessary measures have been taken to prevent such accidents and to limit their consequences for human health and the environment;
3) demonstrate that adequate safety and reliability have been considered in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of any facilities, storage areas, equipment and infrastructure associated with the operation, which are related to major-accident hazards within the establishment;
4) demonstrate that internal emergency plans have been prepared and provide information to enable the preparation of the external emergency plan;
5) to provide sufficient information to the competent authorities and public administration authorities responsible for land-use planning and development to enable decisions to be taken on the location or development of new activities around existing establishments.
c. Major accident prevention policies
According to Law nr 59/11 April 2016 on the control of major accident hazards involving hazardous substances, its Major Accident Prevention Policy (MAPP) must be designed to ensure a high level of protection of human health and of the environment. This policy contains all global objectives and principles of action, the role and responsibility of major accident management, as well as the continuous improvement in the control of major-accident hazards, and it must be designed to provide a high level of protection and to be proportional with the dangers of set major accident.
The framework content of the document that represents a PPMA is presented in annex 2 of Law 59/2016.
d. Internal Emergency Plans
Internal emergency plans are developed for the purpose of planning the specific measures to be taken to reduce the risk towards the employees, the quality of environmental factors and the material goods, in case of events involving hazardous substances. These plans are developed on the basis of the information contained in the safety report.
The development of internal emergency plans in case of accidents in which dangerous substances are involved, is carried out in accordance with Law nr. 59/11 April 2016 regarding the control over the dangers of major accidents in which dangerous substances are involved and on Order 156/11 December 2017 approving the Methodological Rules on the elaboration of internal emergency plans in case of accidents involving hazardous substances, on the control over major accident hazards in which dangerous substances are involved.
The main types of accidents requiring the elaboration of internal emergency plans are:
-emmision of dangerous substances;
-major chemical accidents;
The plan is developed for the purpose of employing specific measures to reduce the risk to employees, the quality of environmental factors and the integrity of material assets in the event of events involving hazardous substances produced on the site of objectives – source of chemical risk, fire, explosions and pollution.
e. Risk Maps
The main objective of the methodology for establishing the adequate distances away from the potential risk sources on sites falling within the scope of Law nr 59/2016 regarding the control over the dangers of major accidents in which dangerous substances are involved, is represented by the insurance of a necessary framework for the prevention and limitation of the consequences following a major accident, in which dangerous substances are involved towards, the population, the natural and artificial environment, respectively the maintaining of adequate distances on the territory development plans, away from functional zones, protected areas, existing or future buildings and potential sources of risk that are present on the emplacement and that fit the purpose of Law nr. 59/2016.